U. S. A. and the WORLD
Mark A. C. Karras, M.A. (Econ.), Ph.D.
A delay in resolving immigration and race issues
in America spells
the demise of this Nation.
"Make Hay Early in the Day"
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is proud to be first to have brought
forth and to clarify the concept that Culture and not Economics is the force
that sustains our American Nation.
Despite what may be the intended projection to influence public perception of reality; for any society it is not economics that shapes its culture. The opposite is true. It is the cultural underpinning that shapes the economic life of that society.
Regretfully, the constancy with which reference is made to the notion of a global economy results in the obfuscation of that which is taking place. The phrase is a mask used to conceal the actual event and to foster upon public opinion a distorted impression of what occurs. It is a method imposed with regularity in order to convince society to accept a distorted view of itself: that is, to deprive society of its ability to reason about its actual condition.
The ultimate goal of this approach is to rob people of their precious freedom; and thus to establish control over the life of the greatest majority. This arrangement in essence is not an economic but a cultural issue cast in the guise of an imperative economic event. The economic aspect is but a pivotal tool toward the achievement of the ulterior goal. Thus, when a people surrender their freedom by self-conviction, the loss is far more devastating than an economic loss. All the wealth in the world loses most of its meaning if the holder is unable to use it as desired. And, when society becomes convinced that its material prosperity, or else lack—in the absence of culture—is the only measure of its worth; then, that society is a slave to its own deception and also a subject to the will of anyone who controls its economic life.
The concept of globalization has an exclusive economic focus that lacks the element of the meaning in human life. It is an instrument for particular gain within a reduced quarter of the world’s population. Its endless pounding in the minds of people debases the fundamental conviction of freedom. The method leads to the disintegration of the balanced economic function of established societies, lowering the standard of living on a universal scale through the loss of the industrial base and intellectual mass. The resulting economic deterioration by the imposition of ill-apportioned international trade activities produces the ultimate desired result; which is, universal control of a culturally emaciated world population. This leads to the understanding that it is not the world population who owns the global economy; it is instead the global economy that owns the world population. Thus, the central questions become: Where does the final locus of control lie? Is such control as dispersed as we are led to believe?
On the other hand, society itself carries responsibility to foreclose on the intrusion imposed upon it. That is, by allowing a deterioration or collapse of ethical and moral integrity, it opens the door to the abuser who enters under the pretext of help and accommodation in support of permissiveness. The activity becomes an accelerating downward spiral to the ultimate weakening and vanishment of social integrity and will—unable to claim even the minimum of a civilized economic standard.
It must be remembered that the US was heralded to become a great "service economy." That scheme with its defunct and conveniently forgotten term paved the way for the second stage, the "global economy"; which in turn is being used to conceal the third but real stage, the "servant economy"—a condition of increasing subordination to indebtedness and dependence on others for major material and financial needs of this Nation
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CAPITALISM vs. SOCIALISM
Capitalism is understood as an economic system. Yet, capitalism is also the manifestation of the instinctive or natural human tendency toward self-interest, initiative, independence, and self-preservation. Such behavior is evident in all animal life and also in what concerns survival it exists in plant life.
On the other hand, social affiliation and community emerge only as subsidiary needs that serve to relieve the pressing demands of capitalism. This complementary function to capitalism is socialism.
Capitalism is thus an instinctive way of life; whereas socialism is a provisional solution to a need. In the case of a capitalist system, the use of socialist methods only modify it—and the system remains capitalistic. However, in the case of socialism, when capitalist methods are applied, the system is transformed to capitalism. Furthermore, socialism by itself is not sustainable as it is only complementary to capitalism.
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Democracy and Republic:
Western Civilization displays the above characteristics, albeit, included in its makeup as part of human behavior, exists the not so infrequent element of error. Considered in this context, the continuity of Western thought and way of life are perceived as an uninterrupted stream of behavior with definable roots in the Hellenistic, Hebraic, and Roman past, and with considerable influence from the Arab, Asian, and also African quarters.
The more evident signs of this amalgamation were manifested through Alexander the Great, followed by the Roman influence and later by Byzantium -- an evolutionary mixture of Hellenistic and Roman identity. The inevitable outcome was the continuation of institutionalized behavior. The populations grew and expanded westward, resulting in what is now in the Western Hemisphere.
The latter bears resemblance to its most recent significant predecessor, namely, Byzantium. Europe was itself the child of that previous larger world. The feudalistic and regal systems of Europe were a deliberate imitation of a perceived enviable system of governance that had begun with Constantine the Great and evolved through his successors. At this point, however, the magnificent child of the West adopts an innovative form to govern itself:
Its essence remains intact with all the identifiable characteristics of its heredity. Although it moves forward in full strength as the New Byzantium in the New World, it attempts a bold modification in its form of government. It retains the principal desire for human freedom, yet institutes order in the implementation of that freedom. In other words, it salvages its predilection for democracy, while at the same time it provides against the propensity for a "free for all" on the pretext of that democracy.
Most eminent in this new arrangement is the United State of America with its founding of the Republic and with its radiating influence throughout the Western Hemisphere [it appears diminishing to characterize the American model of government as a mere "experiment," unique as it may be. It was a full-fledged design engineered by serious and competent visionaries on the strength of their accumulated combined experience and study]. What is significant, however, is the type of republic that it established.
The word democracy describes a concept that is absolute. Nothing can be appended to the word to qualify its nature further. The etymology of the word is clear: the Greek word "demos" means "the people" and "kratos "(-cracy) means "rule" (suggestive of power). The two words combine to render the singular message, "power of the people." There exist no gradations or shades of democracy. Due to its fundamental meaning, however, democracy as a word and as a concept may itself be a qualifier of other words or concepts. It is redundant to use the term "representative democracy" because democracy is by its own nature representative. Danger underlies inaccurate verbiage in that it subordinates the concept of democracy to the concept of representation. This dilutes the power of the people as the primary source of authority: It tends to exaggerate the power entrusted in the representatives of the people instead of strengthening the people's authority the representatives are delegated to serve.
The basis of assignment of public servants to any post, elected or appointed, is the power of the people. This function is conducted by democratic means, which renders effective the social and political system in the United States of America. Furthermore, the decisions reached by the representatives of the power of the people are reached by democratic means of deliberation and voting. This further accentuates the presence of democracy in the Nation. The Constitution of the United States of America begins with the words, "We the People . . . ." It does not say, "we the representatives of the people."
The United States of America is based on a democracy that uses a specific governing mechanism to make the system work. Democracy itself as a governing method in a population of millions is a physical impossibility -- excepting Divine intervention. No governing system exists, even by engaging the highest technology, that can analyze, evaluate, and coordinate the thoughts and wishes of each and every individual. The American method provides for this inadequacy by delegating to a reduced number of persons the task of making the desired decisions. The method involved is the establishment of the Republic.
Unlike a democracy, however, a republic, as both a concept and a word, can be enhanced through other qualifying concepts and words.* There are variations in the types of republics that may exist. The American system may be described with accuracy as a Democratic Republic. The qualifier in this case is the word democratic. It may also be referenced as a Constitutional Republic—a redundancy, since a republic is a device set forth by a ruling instrument. Other alternatives that may exist are: Oligarchic Republic or representative government whose delegates are appointed by the few who control the majority of the people; Plutocratic Republic whose delegates are appointed by the wealthy; Autocratic Republic whose delegates are appointed by one person; Technocratic or Bureaucratic Republic whose delegates are the work of special power interests entrenched in government; and, so forth.
It is in this area that the American system is sensitive: Citizens are under constant obligation to monitor and control their delegated representatives (both elected and appointed) in order to retain the strength, effectiveness, and purity of their system of government. A democracy must be strong in order for a republic to be strong. To discredit democracy is to exaggerate the true function of a republic—in order to inflate the significance of the delegated servants of government. This, in time, tends to obscure the distinction between the authority of government and of those who serve that authority, which in actual terms rests in the power of the people.
It is vague and inadequate to identify a nation such as the United States of America as only a Republic: It is always necessary to specify the type of republic that is involved. The United States has adopted what appears to be the optimum system of a Democratic Republic. A deviation can downgrade the system to a lower level of governance of an oligarchic, then plutocratic, and soon thereafter of an autocratic republic. The integrity of the system, therefore, is crucial in the maintenance of the cultural setting within which the Republic survives.
The setting in this instance is the inherited continuity of Western Civilization evolved from the Old World in its maximum outreach to the New World or NEW BYZANTIUM. Many aspects of this continuing Civilization are present and active to this day, including the tendency to welcome and to assimilate contributions of other cultures and systems. It is unreasonable, therefore, for some cultures to advocate the destruction of the Western world, whereas they too have a stake in it and have the chance to continue to do so.
Democracy is a state of being and, as characterized above, absolute in nature: It is not a devised method of governance but rather a tendency toward which society leans in the collective struggle of individual wills. On the other hand, a constitutional arrangement is a specific design created by the will or power of the people (i.e., democracy) for the purpose of establishing a form of government.
It is not possible for the
created to give existence to the creator.
Therefore, democracy—a creative
absolute, fundamental and inimitable in nature—can not be compared or qualified as being of a
certain type. That which can
be qualified is the type of governance the democracy (i.e., the will or power of
the people) has created.
By: Mark Athanasios C. Karras, Ph.D. (May, 2004)
Expansion of Western Civilization: from Constantine the Great to Constantinople and Byzantium and onward to America
is The AMERICAS